Imagine feb 2015 is a month of mooc content on END HUNGER Preferential Option Poor
please help us co-edit this space or if you are on coursera this wiki
POP end hunger - agriculture and bottom up crop science- there's no point the other kind of pop stars like Bono's One alumni https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJXqG40WH68
demanding 10% of economies are focused n agriculture unless we build on learning of agricultures greatest POP connectors - people like Borlaug-please note while feedthefuture is supposed to have been a signature effort during obama's adminsitration there isnt as yet even one week mooc on Who's POP who of agriculture (end hunger)
-172 years ago The Economist was founded to mediate end hunger and yet in 2015 end-poverty economists and POP crop scientists cant even open source one week of open elearning content to engage citizens- whos' got their preferential options messed up - economists, educators, or agricultural consultants?
|sadly may 2021 reports davosagenda has cancelled aug 2021 update from singapore- next stops geneva mountains jan 22?
mahbubani syllabus- EconomistDiary.com breaking news jan 2021 - singapores leader shares views at davos agenda and welcomes opportunity to stage entire weforum summit in august
when we surveyed goal 1 end poverty world bankers like jim kim about number 1 educatorof sdg generation he said sir fazle abed; when we asked fazle abed about coalition partners of university coalition he said a consensus among most asian ambassadors was singapore for knowing where to connect with and korea if you want to inspect some innovations humanising ai before you did a grand tour of china's connections such as the schwarzman triad: beijing's tsinghua, boston's mit, oxford's rhodes on number 1 educator /alumni netwrk to learn from he said sir fazle abed;
united labs for all human hope and love -in the 2010s more data than humans had ever seen before was created by satellites and mobile devices; moreover 10 dollar computer chips had caught up with the number crunching ability of human brains- and unlike us 7.5 billion people could be cloned to operate specific systems in real time- eg soon driving and policing of cars can be done by the artificials but this begs a question what priority help do 7.5 billion people need? why over 15 years were autnonomous cars priortitised over ending viruses/ the answer is people at the top of the biggest organisations do not see natures challenges to us beings at ground level; the challenge of how to prioritise human ai was popular in the economist of the 1970s partly becuase a journalist had been privilieged to be one of the last people to interview von neumann whose legacy has been 60 years of ai labs started up with twins in 1960 facintg the atlantic out of bostons mit and facing the pacific out of stanford- exercise fingd a globe and point to a place where one thousandth of humans mediates a bigger diversity of demands for humanising tech than anywhere else? did you choose singapore: a island at the apex of the 2 coastlines that 70% of humans being asian depend most on for world trade shipping -while you should certainly choose anywhere on the globe you like to do this survey its extraordinary what can be learnt from singaporeans if 2021 is to be the most exciting and loving year after the hopelessyear of covid 2020 ...
Friday, February 27, 2015
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POP NUTRITION - Crop Science
Some argue that Borlaug's crop science out of a mexican field lab in partnership with American sponsors like Rockefeller Foundation moved up to a billion villagers beyond risk of famine.
100 YEARS OF DR. NORMAN BORLAUG - By Caroline Schneider, 2014
Circa 1942: a new venture had started in
Out of Japan, Nippon Institute provided similar
leadership especially for rice. By the 1980s, attracting world leading crop
science knowhow became one of BRAC's main ways of developing womens livelihoods
and redesigning agricultural value chains to include the poorest
By some reports,
When Borlaug began his work in
Stem Rust and Shuttle Breeding
One of the first problems Borlaug addressed in
Three epidemics of stem rust from 1939-1941 wiped out wheat in the Yaqui
Breeding rust-resistant varieties of wheat was a slow process taking up to 10 or 12 years. To speed up the process and take advantage of both of
Borlaug faced criticism for his idea of shuttle breeding, even from others at OEE. A widely held belief at the time was that seeds needed to rest after harvesting in order to store energy before being planted again. Also, shuttle breeding would mean double the work each year—and double the costs.
Despite the resistance, Borlaug forged ahead with his breeding plans. Not only did the wheat grow in both locations allowing the breeding to progress more quickly, but there was an unexpected side effect. Wheat that was grown during shorter days in the north was then taken south when the days were longer. Not only were the selected plants adapted to different climates, but they were adapted to a wide range of day lengths. This achievement meant that wheat grown in
The success of shuttle breeding, a technique still practiced today, allowed Borlaug and his colleagues to make great progress in his first 10 years in
Lodging and Semi-Dwarf Wheat Varieties
In addition to stem rust, Borlaug and his colleagues found themselves facing another problem at the time. During World War II, nitrate was produced in large volumes for use in explosives. With the war over, the factories switched to making nitrogen fertilizer for agricultural use. Increases in fertilizer use led to better crop growth and higher grain yields. But along with increased yields came heavier heads of grain and a problem for wheat—lodging.
Lodging occurs when stalks collapse under the weight of the grain and fall over. This can ruin the crop and lead to large reductions in yield. To prevent lodging, Borlaug wanted to breed the tall, thin stalks common in
The new Mexican semi-dwarf varieties had multiple benefits. The shorter wheat produced stronger stalks and two to three times more grain than standard varieties. Also, Borlaug bred the shorter varieties with the stem rust-resistant wheat he had produced earlier, creating semi-dwarf wheat that was resistant to the disease and could be grown in a range of climates.
These new varieties greatly changed the picture of wheat production in
Also in 1963, CIMMYT (The International Maize and
A few years later, the CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers was founded to further support and disseminate agricultural research around the world. CIMMYT was one of the first research centers to be supported through CGIAR and is one of 15 such centers today.
It seems to me that Borlaug's first quarter century of discoveries, prior to his nobel prize, corresponded to an era when best for world knowhow on ending hunger was disseminated freely. Whats desperately needed in 2015 is a mooc with one week on each food crop which starts by cataloguing which crop science is globally edited by POP professionals. Put another way look at the missed opportunity of not organising feedthefuture.gov around a khan academy style dashboard of POP crop science
In parallel, where POP alumni of Borlaug have curated databases of crop science matched to combinatorial local profiles that poor farmers face locally, turn all the information into mobile apps
With Bono's ONE's pop stars massively campaigning that investing 10% of developing nations budget o agriculture is best way to end poverty, time is now to ensure we open source POP knowhow not big vested interests who control global food chains
Additional Commentary Success and Criticism
The spread of practices and seeds developed by Borlaug was driven by his hard work, but also by his ability to engage and interest all of the stakeholders from farmers and students to policy-makers and administrators.
“He was good at something most scientists aren’t good at—public relations,” explains ASA and SSSA Fellow Ed Runge, professor at
Education was very important to Borlaug. Both in
He also continually pushed for better support for farmers, both through government funding and training. Later in his life when he was involved with SAA, he worked to bring simple technologies that many take for granted, such as irrigation and fertilizers, to poorer farmers in
“Dr. Borlaug was very practical. He understood what small-holder farmers needed and fought for them to be provided every tool available,” says Robert Fraley, Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer at Monsanto. “He believed in training the next generation and engaging young people.”
In the midst of great success, the Green Revolution also had its critics. By using more fertilizers and water and cultivating a single crop, some believed that Borlaug’s techniques were damaging the environment, depleting water and soil resources, and hindering biodiversity.
While he acknowledged the critiques, Borlaug maintained that they were smaller concerns than the starvation and political unrest facing many hungry nations. He would also note that thousands of acres of land had been saved from agricultural development through the increased yields of the new varieties. He continually pushed for improved practices that would maximize water use and conserve soil while maintaining the high yields necessary to feed the population.
Beyond stem rust, agricultural researchers still face many issues today. They strive to find ways to feed the world while protecting the earth and its resources. For many in the field, Borlaug’s work and words were a challenge to continue the fight against hunger and to do so in a way that would incorporate and address as many aspects of food production as possible.
“The greatest thing he did for the field of agronomy was to begin to show people that they had to think about multiple parts of the system,” says ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Fellow Jerry Hatfield, lab director at the USDA-ARS. “If you think about what he did in the Green Revolution, it wasn’t about genetics, and it wasn’t about fertility, and it wasn’t about water. It was about all of those different things together.”
So 100 years after he was born, and with the world population continuing to grow, Borlaug’s legacy still resonates. He continues to call us all to action with words he spoke in 1970 at his Nobel Lecture: “I cannot emphasize too strongly the fact that further progress depends on intelligent, integrated, and persistent effort by government leaders, statesmen, tradesmen, scientists, educators, and communication agencies…we can and must make continuous progress.”
Dissemination of Borlaug Crop Science to
Late 1990s challenges in